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List of bones of the human skeleton
Human anatomy, which, with physiology and biochemistry is a complementary basic medical science (See Anatomy) is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, physiology (the study of function) and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences which are usually taught together (or in tandem).
In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos.
The human body consists of biological systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue.
The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.
1.1 Regional groups
1.2 Major organ systems
2 Superficial anatomy
3 Internal organs
5 See also
7 External links
Generally, medical students, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, artists, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.
Human anatomy, physiology and, biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format, in line with modern teaching methods.
 Regional groups
Head and neck — includes everything above the thoracic inlet
Upper limb — includes the hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, arm, and shoulder.
Thorax — the region of the chest from the thoracic inlet to the thoracic diaphragm.
Human abdomen to the pelvic brim or to the pelvic inlet.
The back — the spine and its components, the vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, and intervertebral disks .
Pelvis and Perineum — the pelvis consists of everything from the pelvic inlet to the pelvic diaphragm. The perineum is the region between the sex organs and the anus.
Lower limb — everything below the inguinal ligament, including the hip, the thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle, and the foot.
 Major organ systems
Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals or adrenal glands
Immune system: protecting against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.
Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails
Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen
Activity system: movement with muscles and human skeleton (structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons).
Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves
Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm.
Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
 Superficial anatomy
Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in human anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily identified from the contours or other reference points on the surface of the body. With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.
Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:
Head — Forehead — Jaw — Face — Cheek — Chin
Neck — Shoulders
Arm — Elbow — Wrist — Hand — Fingers — Thumb
Spine — Chest — Ribcage
Abdomen — Groin
Hip — Buttocks — Leg — Thigh — Knee — Calf — Heel — Ankle — Foot — Toes
The eye, ear, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, throat, adam's apple, breast, penis, scrotum, clitoris, vulva, navel are visible too.
 Internal organs
Common names of internal organs (in alphabetical order) :
Adrenals — Appendix — Bladder — Brain — Eyes — Gall bladder — Heart — Intestines — Kidney — Liver — Lungs — Esophagus — Ovaries — Pancreas — Parathyroids — Pituitary — Prostate — Spleen — Stomach — Testicles — Thymus — Thyroid — Uterus — Veins
Main article: Human brain
Amygdala — Brain stem — Cerebellum — Cerebral cortex — Limbic system — medulla — midbrain — pons
 See also
Terms for anatomical location
List of human anatomical features
List of human anatomical parts named after people
Visible Human Project
List of regions in the human brain
List of bones of the human skeleton
List of muscles of the human body
List of distinct cell types in the adult human body
^ a b c d e f g "Introduction page, "Anatomy of the Human Body". Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918". Retrieved on 27 March 2007.
^ "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". Retrieved on 27 March 2007.
^ "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". Retrieved on 27 March 2007.
"Anatomy of the Human Body". 20th edition. 1918. Henry Gray. In public domain.
 External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Anatomy Dissection videos
e-Anatomy - Interactive atlas of whole human body cross-sectional anatomy.
Anatomy Lab - Interactive quizzes, question-of-the-week, and photographs.
The Anatomy Wiz - An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Index
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Head & Torso
Teeth & Jaws
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Welcome to one-stop shopping for your human anatomy education needs. We recognize that such needs cover an entire spectrum: introduction to anatomy for elementary school children, more advanced studies for those in middle and high school and, of course, college and medical school. Doctors use our anatomical models for patient education. Hospitals use them to train their staffs. The needs go on and on. Plus various medical specialties all have their own needs. But rest assured that you will find what you want. We offer the world's largest selection of anatomical models, so you can find the ones that fit your individual needs. We've provided detailed descriptions, but if you require additional help, then call one of our Customer Service Representatives at the number shown above.
JuSt FoR KidSIntroduces kids to Human Anatomy through science kits, anatomical models, books and anatomical charts. Great for both elementary and middle school students.
Heads & Torsos These Anatomical Modelsdepict all of the anatomical systems. Both head and torso models show bones and muscles. The heads contain brains, eyes,. etc. The torsos contain all of the internal organs of the human body.
Skeletal System Huge Section. Here you will find a large selection of human skulls, human skeletons, joints, spinal columns, and extremities. Bones, bones and more bones. Even real human skulls and skeletons.
Muscular SystemA large section containing full body muscle figures, muscles of the head and face plus the extremities and all the joints. Many are invaluable for patient education and sports medicine.
Heart, CirculationHere you will find great anatomical models that show how the circulatory system actually works, plus lots of heart models -one suitable for everything from elementary education to advanced medical studies.
Brain / Nervous SystemDr. Frankenstein's great mistake was using an inferior brain in creating his monster. Here you'll find nothing but first-class brains (but we do have a budget brain). Plus models of the human nervous system.
Lungs / RespirationAnatomical models of the lungs and cardiopulmonary system. Some also show heart, pulmonary arties and veins, esophagus and diaphragm.
Digestive & Urinary An extensive exploration of both the human digestive system and the human urinary system, including the stomach, kidneys, liver, adrenal gland and more.
ReproductionMale and Female Pelvis sections and genitals. Special section on life before birth, pregnancy and childbirth. Includes human breast models and those that depict cancer.
The SkinModels showing details of both skin with hair and without hair. Also acne, skin cancer and burn pathologies.
Ear, Nose & ThroatGreat assortment of models to explore in this anatomical specialty: many ears and larynx models. Plus sinus, nose and auditory ossicles.
Tooth & JawUnder Construction
The Eyes / SightPerhaps the most valuable of human senses, our eyes let us perceive the world around us. Many models of the eye from life-size to whopper giants. Most interesting are the functional ones that really work.
Fun StuffUnder Construction
Charts & PostersWe have an extensive selection. For Main Menu, CLICK HERE
BooksAnatomy, Medicine, Health, Related Subjects.Large Selection. For Main Menu, CLICK HERE
Updated 6/15/2007 Copyright 2007